Functions of Complete Motherboard Sections on Computers – The following is an explanation of the function of parts of the motherboard that you may not know what they are used for and what are the parts. Let's see the article below.

Computer is a complex technological gadget needed by today's civilization. The use of computers can speed up the completion of a project. So, in order to work efficiently, computers need various supporting equipment that are located on the computer's motherboard.

You may need to know how the motherboard parts work, especially if you use your computer every day.

Definition of Motherboards

Definition of Motherboards

The motherboard functions as a hub to connect various parts of the computer as a whole.

The motherboards currently available have a somewhat variable component placement. It is not surprising that many individuals do not know the parts and functions of the components on a computer.

Motherboard Function

As the brain of the computer, the motherboard performs important functions and plays an important role. The motherboard serves as a hub for all of the computer's components, including functions, chipsets, RAM, hard drives, computer cards, LAN cards, and other peripherals.

When the motherboard performs these functions, it can be said that the motherboard functions as the brain of the computer.

This component is the main engine of computers and laptops. After getting the motherboard concept and motherboard functions, now let's get into the components on the motherboard.

Type - Type of motherboard

Although it is the main circuit board of a computer, it turns out that the motherboard has many other types. Motherboards come in all shapes and sizes, including those listed below:

  1. ATX Form Factor. The first type of motherboard was the Advanced Technology Extended or ATX form factor, an Intel motherboard that debuted in 1995. This motherboard has dimensions of 305 x 244 mm.
  2. Form Factor Micro-ATX. is the form factor. With reduced production costs and better performance, this is an upgraded ATX based motherboard. The dimensions of this mobo are 244 x 244 mm.
  3. Form Factor Mini – ITXForm factor Mini. The ITX Form Factor Mini-ITX is the next type of motherboard. Mini form factor (ITX) is a kind of compact motherboard, which is deliberately made to make computers energy efficient and electricity. The dimensions of this Mini-ITX type motherboard are 170 x 170 mm.
  4. Form Factor Pico – ITX. The Pico-ITX motherboards in the Mini-ITX and Pico-ITX series will have a smaller footprint, measuring 100 x 70 mm.
  5. Form Factor Nano – ITX. This Nano-ITX motherboard has very large dimensions, which are approximately 120 x 120 mm.
  6. Form Factor NLX. NLX stands for New Low Profile Extended. The NLX has only one slot for expansion and is a motherboard designed by Intel in 1997. This motherboard measures 254 x 228 mm.

Computer Motherboard Parts

The following are the parts of the motherboard on the computer, including:

Motherboard Function

Processor Socket

The CPU socket is the initial component of the motherboard. Its function is to enter the computer processor. Typically, around this socket there are four holes for mounting the heatsink and processor fan.

A heatsink above the socket is necessary because the CPU is the most used component on the motherboard.

Before buying a processor, double check the type of socket to be used. If the socket is wrong, the processor will waste time. Examples of some of the processor sockets that we often encounter today are:

  1. Intel Processor Socket
  2. LGA 1151 socket
  3. LGA 1150 socket
  4. LGA 1155 motherboard socket
  5. Socket for AMD Processors
  6. AMD AM4 socket.
  7. AM3 socket from AMD FX series.
  8. AMD AM2 processor socket
  9. 939 Atlon 64 X2

Controller hub or North Bridge

The controller hub or what can be called the north bridge is a component on the motherboard that has the function of managing the communication of RAM slots, VGA cards, and PCI Express sockets with the CPU. To find the hub controller, just look on the left side of the processor.

South Bridge Controllers

Meanwhile, the south bridge controller functions to control computer devices such as BIOS, CMOS, USB, keyboard, mouse, modem, LAN, and so on. The location of the south bridge is near the PCI Express slot.

RAM memory slots

To install RAM on the motherboard, you must use the RAM memory slot, which extends near the CPU socket with a distinctive design.

In most cases, there is more than one available RAM slot. Make sure when buying RAM to pay attention to the type of socket first, because currently there are many types of RAM available, such as DDR, DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4.


The motherboard BIOS (Basic Input Output System) is the chip that controls all of the motherboard hardware. Before the computer can be used, it depends on the BIOS to make sure that all the hardware is working.

When an error or hardware problem occurs, usually the BIOS will issue a notification with a beep. The number of beeps originating from the BIOS device can now be used to determine the level of corruption.

UEFI, a more modern way to run computers, is starting to replace older BIOSes.

IDE/SATA slots

The hard disk drive can be connected to the computer via the IDE/SATA slot. SATA slots have largely replaced IDE slots on motherboards in recent years.

The SATA slot has a compact shape like a USB slot. There are a lot of pins in the IDE slot, so the model is extended.

PCI Express Slots

The PCI Express slot has the function of installing additional devices on the computer. PCI Express is located next to the AGP slot because the number of PCI Express is often larger than one slot. As a result, you can add a LAN card, sound card, TV tuner, WiFi card and other accessories.

AGP and PCI Express X16 slots

The AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) slot functions as a slot to place an external graphics card (VGA card) on a computer.

It is located next to the PCI Express slot, generally above the PCI Express slot. Since PCI Express X16 has taken over for AGP, most new motherboards no longer have AGP slots.

CMOS battery

In the BIOS, a small coin-sized battery called a CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) acts as the computer's power source and storage device.

Computer Motherboard Parts

When your computer regularly has problems, especially with setting the time and date, this may be an indication that the CMOS battery is running low. Make sure the CMOS battery is of the same type before replacing.

Power Controllers

The power controller connection has a function to connect the power source from the power supply on the motherboard.

Generally the number of pins on each motherboard varies, depending on the brand and type of motherboard. Before buying a power supply, make sure the number of pins on the motherboard matches the number of pins on the power supply.

I/O ports

Input Output A series of ports are located on the back of the computer chassis. This I/O port can be used as an input device for a mouse, keyboard, flash drive, LAN cable, or microphone, as the name suggests.

Audio, video, displays, printers and other devices can all benefit from output.

Front Panel Connectors

The front panel joints, the last component of the motherboard, should not be neglected. The installation of the power button, restart, hard drive and USB port can all be completed in this section. In most cases, each pin is marked with a different color.


So, those are the parts and functions of the motherboard of the components on a computer. The motherboard serves as a hub for all of the computer's components, including RAM and hard drives.

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