Definition and Types of Criticism of Fine Art Works - In art, criticism has often been made, for this reason in the following article we will explain criticism of works of art from its meaning and types.

Criticism is a normal reaction one offers when admiring another's thoughts or opinions. When exposed to art criticism, many people equate the term "criticism" with a negative meaning. When we voice our displeasure with someone or something because of what we believe to be a mistake or criticism, it means we are criticizing them.

This preconception is not addressed in the criticism presented here. A good response to criticism is one that not only looks for flaws but also shows how great the idea is and what steps have been taken to fix the problem.

Definition of Criticism of Fine Art Works

Art criticism is the appraisal or admiration of works of art, such as paintings, drawings, sculptures or graphics, through the process of studying and interpreting a work.

The criticism given must be objective (not only based on happy or dislike sentiments) and supported by supporting arguments.

There are ways to make critical comments on works of art, including exposure, accidental (formal) description, interpretation of meaning or meaning, and evaluation.

Definition of Criticism of Fine Art Works

Based on this perspective, the act of art criticism cannot be separated from the enjoyment of art. In general, to appreciate art, you have to understand all its subtleties and be sensitive to its aesthetic qualities.

Art appreciation activities require efforts to capture various creative items with all their difficulties and to be more sensitive to the aesthetic qualities contained therein.

When recognizing, enjoying, loving, and judging a work of art, someone who can appreciate it will do so with sensitivity.

Forms of Criticism of Fine Art Works

Each style of criticism has various qualities: means of media, viewpoints, goals and resources. Criticism can be formalistic, expressive, or instrumental, depending on where it starts.

Formalistic Criticism

The aim of formalistic criticism is to arrange the formal features or component parts in a certain way. Objections to the quality of the materials and methods used in the creation of the works are also included in this criticism.

In 2D criticism, things such as color, line, and texture of a painting or graphic design will be discussed. In 3D criticism, volumes, materials, angles, and sides of objects will be discussed.

Expressive Criticism

The quality of the ideas and emotions expressed can be evaluated and responded to using expressive criticism. Most of the time, expressive criticism looks at how well a work's title, topic, content, and way of presenting it fit.

Instrumentalistic Criticism

An artist's capacity to achieve moral or psychological goals is evaluated using instrumentalistic criticism. This kind of criticism does not only look at the formal quality of a work; it also looks at its historical and/or modern context.

Types of Criticism of Fine Art Works

Types of Criticism of Fine Art Works

Art criticism has many categories depending on the purpose of the critique. Because of these differences, Feldman (1967) says that art criticism can be divided into several types.

Popular Criticism (Popular Criticism)

Popular criticism is criticism of works of art designed for widespread or popular consumption. The answer to this criticism is generic, such as the introduction or publication of a work. The most popular criticisms are written in clear and simple language that is easy to understand.

Journalistic Criticism

Journalists' criticism is noteworthy because it is based on publicly available comments or judgments. Journalist criticism can be transmitted through the mainstream media, especially newspapers.

The difference between popular criticism and journalistic criticism lies in deeper and sharper assessments. People's perspectives are easily swayed by this kind of criticism.

Scholarly Criticism

Scientific criticism is criticism of scientific works of art. Critique that takes into account a person's skills, knowledge, and emotional receptivity when evaluating or reacting to a piece of work.

Scholarly criticism is often offered by critics who have established skills in artistic subjects or present according to the principles and methods of academic criticism.

Collectors or curators of art institutions such as museums, galleries, auction houses and other art organizations often use this criticism as a reference.

Educational Criticism (Pedagogical Criticism)

Educational criticism is an activity of criticizing works of art that seeks to develop creative and aesthetic sensitivity of the subject when studying art, in this case the teacher as a guide and students as creators of criticism. This criticism is taught in art schools.

The most important aspect of critical writing is a thorough understanding of philosophy, history and art criticism as a whole. Description, analysis, interpretation and evaluation are the four phases of art criticism.

Description is the initial stage in writing art criticism. In the description, it shows an explanation of the item that is captured visually or audio-visually by the five senses. Descriptions provide factual explanations for the images displayed.

Color, line, form, shape, space, and texture are just a few of the elements that go into the analysis of art criticism. In addition, the application of art concepts such as unity, balance, contrast, accentuation, composition, rhythm, and proportion is also an option in the field of visual communication.

Educational Criticism Pedagogical Criticism

In a study discussed the reasons why painters use certain aspects of art. Interpretation in criticism examines how art tries to communicate with the public and how the reactions received by observers are related to what is to be conveyed in a work.

Interpretation of the meaning of a work of art includes key themes in the work, symbols that are attempted to appear in the visuals, and certain indications. The last stage in visual criticism is the assessment of works of art. The visibility of a work is measured by whether or not the work is noticed.

In addition to approaches and observations, there is pure knowledge that refers to philosophical values to view a work in terms of form and form symptoms. Art criticism is also used as a standard to be able to understand the deeper meaning of art than its value.

The Function of Criticism of Fine Art Works

In addition to increasing the understanding and enjoyment of a work, criticism is also used as a benchmark to improve the quality of the process of making art in accordance with the progress and demands of the art world.

Art criticism as a form of self-reflection in order to develop awareness, understanding, and contemplation, as well as creative works. A work of art can be assessed by a critic as a source of inspiration for other works.

The reaction and judgment of a well-known critic influences a viewer's sense of quality in such a way that it can change the monetary value of the work itself.

Art critics who focus on two-dimensional works of art, such as paintings, photographs, product designs, logos and calligraphy, assess works in terms of length and breadth. Critics of 3-dimensional art work review works of art that have three dimensions, namely length, width, and height or volume, such as sculptures, ceramics, crafts, and others.

Steps in Art Criticism

Criticizing a work of art usually does not seek to reveal the flaws, deficiencies or weaknesses of a work of art. An artist, on the other hand, can learn about the merits of his own art as well as the work of others through this critique.

Steps in Art Criticism

Tri Aru Wiratno's book Critical Culture-Based Art Criticism states that art criticism goes through many stages.

  1. Connect as many works being evaluated as possible with other works of the same genre.
  2. Determine the purpose or function of the work being examined.
  3. Determine the specified number of jobs "deviate" from the current one.
  4. Check the job to see if there are any particular demands or viewpoints to consider.

Are Art Appreciation and Work Criticism the Same?

The two are not the same, despite their close relationship. Art criticism differs from appreciation in that it focuses more on reactions to works of art, whereas appreciation focuses more on the positive and negative aspects of works of art.

This information on the pros and cons is used to change people's perspective on the quality and monetary value (price) of a work of art. It is used as a standard for enhancing the creative process and final product.

Stages in Writing Criticism of Fine Art Works

In writing criticism of works of art, there are various stages that must be passed by a critic, including:


Description is a vital stage to be able to identify, record or also describe everything that may be observed as it is and not attempt to analyze or make conclusions.

A critic has to be familiar with the jargon phrases of the art world to come to an informed conclusion. Without knowledge, the critic will not be able to understand what is going on in the work he is looking at.

Formal Analysis

Formal analysis is the stage of art criticism to be able to trace a work of art based on its formal structure and its individual parts.

At this point, a critic should have a good understanding of the basic pieces of art and the rules that govern how they are put together in a work of art.


At the interpretation stage of a work of art, the topics to be worked on, the symbols given, or the challenges raised are all included in the interpretation process. The critic's point of view and understanding influence this interpretation. The wider the point of view of a critic, the deeper the interpretation of the work he is criticizing.

Evaluation or Assessment

The quality of a work can be judged by evaluating it against other works of art of the same genre. This comparison is made on various elements that will be relevant to the work, including formal features and contextual aspects.

Art criticism is an assessment or admiration for works of art through the process of studying and interpreting a work. Criticism can be formalistic, expressive, or instrumental, depending on where it starts.

Each style of criticism has various qualities, means of media, viewpoints, goals and resources. Art criticism has many categories depending on the purpose of the critique.


Critics art is the assessment or admiration of works of art through the process of studying and interpreting a work. Criticism can be formalistic, expressive, or instrumental, depending on where it starts.

Each style of criticism has various qualities, means of media, viewpoints, goals and resources. Art criticism has many categories depending on the purpose of the critique.

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