Types of Computer Hardware Components

Rancakmedia.com – The following is an explanation of computer hardware that you might not know about. In this section, we will cover the various hardware components of a computer.

Hardware for computer systems This is a great place to start if you want to start learning about computers. That's a great place to start, but also interesting to know just for the sake of it.

Studying the parts of a computer and how they work can help you understand how all the important parts work together. In addition to learning the component parts of computer hardware, you will also gain knowledge about how each part works.

Definition of Computer Hardware

Definition of Computer Hardware

Computer hardware is the hardware part of a computer system. In basic language, only the parts of a computer system that humans can see or touch are called computer hardware.

Computer hardware is often referred to as "hardware". A computer system will not be complete without computer hardware, as it is called in Indonesian. You cannot operate a computer without hardware, and without hardware, there would be no computer system or structure.

We hope you will understand with this simple explanation of the importance of computer hardware. After that, we will go into detail about the various hardware components of a computer.

List of Computer Hardware Components

Computer system hardware can be broken down into a number of hardware components, which we will cover in the following few paragraphs with examples.

You should be familiar with the following computer hardware components:

  1. Mouse
  2. Keyboards
  3. Monitors
  4. Motherboards
  5. CPUs
  6. RAM Memory
  7. ROM Memory
  8. Hard Disk Drives
  9. Optical Drives
  10. IO System
  11. Power Supply
  12. External Ports
  13. CPU Fans
  14. Soundcard
  15. Video Display Controllers

Computer Hardware Components

The most important hardware components are the motherboard, CPU, RAM memory, power supply, visual display controller, IO system, bus and hard disk drives. Some of the common pieces of hardware that you see, such as the mouse, keyboard, monitor, and CPU, are the basic components of a computer.

Computer Hardware Components

The following is computer hardware and its names and functions:

Mouse Computer Hardware

A mouse is a piece of hardware that allows you to move the pointer or cursor on a computer screen.

It can also be used to run computer programs, select things in a graphical user interface, and control objects in the computer world.

Some frequently used examples include pressing buttons, scrolling up and down the screen, selecting files, opening directories, and so on.

Keyboard Computer Hardware

The keyboard is an input device that you use to enter data into the computer. It is also called the input device for your computer. When it comes to computing devices of all kinds, keyboards are indispensable.

There are several types of keyboards, but the most common is the QWERTY keyboard. A QWERTY keyboard has all the letters in alphabetical order on it. Unlike the Dvorak or Colemak keyboards, this one has a unique layout.

If you're familiar with QWERTY keyboards, you'll notice that the keys on this one are arranged differently. As a result, typing on this keyboard will initially feel like a foreign language. But don't worry—once you get used to it, it feels natural!

Types of Computer Keyboards

The following are types of keyboards that are rarely known by most users, some of which might be your reference in getting a keyboard that suits your needs.

  1. QWERTY keyboard
  2. Wireless Keyboards
  3. Numeric Keypad
  4. USB Keyboards
  5. Magic Keyboard
  6. Backlit Keyboard
  7. Gaming Keyboards
  8. Mechanical Keyboards
  9. Membrane Keyboard
  10. Flexible Keyboard
  11. Multimedia Keyboards
  12. Virtual Keyboards

Monitor Computer Hardware

Personal computers use displays to display data, operate software, and communicate with people.

Monitor is a device that displays images on a computer or laptop screen. Images, text, videos, games and web pages can all be displayed using this technology.

Monitors are available in various sizes based on the demands of the individuals who use them. Computer displays come in all shapes and sizes. The most common types of monitors (light-emitting diode) are LCD (liquid crystal display) and LED (light-emitting diode).


The computer motherboard is an important component at the core of the system. Here we have the CPU, or central processing unit. This connects all other components, such as RAM and graphics card, to the power supply.


The motherboard is where all the cables connect and also where you install RAM, which is your computer's working memory. It is the motherboard that differentiates one computer from another.

Tiny transistors on the surface of the motherboard regulate the flow of power through the copper pipes. These transistors are called Integrated Circuits, or ICs, for short.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

Computer hardware, referred to as the brain of the computer, is called the CPU, which stands for Central Processing Unit, which is the brain of the computer. It is the job of the CPU to process data and run programs.
It works as a control unit that executes programs based on instructions in its program memory.

The central processing unit (CPU) consists of parts such as registers, arithmetic logic unit (ALU), and control logic.

RAM (Random Access Memory)

Random Access Memory, or RAM, is a type of internal computer that stores data that can be directly accessed by the central processing unit (CPU).

Computers rely on their main memory to run programs. The more RAM you have, the more data your machine can handle at once. This will make your computer work more efficiently, which means it will work better for you.

ROM (Read Only Memory)

ROM, or Read Only Memory, refers to a type of memory chip that the system can read but not write to. In other words, it is a data storage method that cannot be modified once it has been encoded.

It is often called “non-volatile” memory because the information it stores persists even when the device is not turned on or in use.

ROM is used to store computer commands and data in things like computers in cars and data tables in calculators.

Hard Disk Drives

The hard drive is a piece of computer hardware that stores data. The hard disk drive is a piece of hardware inside the computer that stores information. Virtual hard drives may be used when software or data need to be stored securely while remaining easily accessible.

With magnetic storage, there are no moving parts—unlike CD or DVD players, where you need to move the disc around to retrieve the data.

You might think of it as a “closet” where all your belongings are safely stored. As long as you have strength, you can get your items when you need them.

Optical Drives

Optical drives are used in PCs to read and write CDs and DVDs. The Optical Drive reads information from the disc. This information can then be converted into a digital file that can be read by a computer.

This makes it easy to back up files, play music or movies, or transfer data from one disc to another. CD stands for “Compact Disc,” which is the most common type of optical drive in computers today.

Most of the time, they are used to install software on your computer, send data from one machine to another, or build new applications.

IO System Computer Hardware

Data can be accessed using the IO system, which is a collection of devices.

There are three basic aspects of an IO system:

  1. Inputs
  2. output
  3. Storage

Input devices, which are often called "input peripherals", are typically used to enter data into the computer for the first time.

The output device is where the data is presented. Storage devices store data so it doesn't need to be in memory or processed by the CPU.

Power Supply

Computers need resources to provide the computers they need to run. Electricity is used to power the computer, and the power supply helps convert the alternating current (AC) from the power outlet into direct current (DC).

The computer power supply can be built in or connected from outside. It is very important that your power supply is active and running properly.

External Ports

External ports are used to connect your computer to external devices such as printers and speakers, among many others.

External ports, on the other hand, are not all created equal. Ports on laptops and desktops come in all shapes and sizes, allowing you to use them for a variety of uses.

CPU Fans

The CPU fan on your computer is a very important component for your PC. If your CPU fan stops working, your computer can overheat, which can damage other parts of the system.

CPU Fans

The CPU fan helps cool the CPU and other internal elements of the computer. It also generates negative pressure and removes dust and dirt from the inside.


The computer chip that processes and amplifies sound is known as a sound card. Speakers, headphones and other output devices get their signal from this.

A sound card may also be called a “sound card” or “audio card”. A computer with a sound card can play audio and video files, and can also be used to talk.

In the 1980s, sound cards were sold as add-ons for personal computers. With the advance of the microprocessor, sound capabilities were built into motherboards throughout the 1990s. This is now a standard feature on almost all PCs.

VDC (Video Display Controller)

A video display controller (often reduced to VDC) is a circuit found in video cards that controls a computer's visual output.

The controller's job is to ensure that the data sent to the screen or TV is in the correct format.
Hardware installed on the motherboard can be used to create video display controllers, or a separate card can be connected to the motherboard via slots.


So, those are the parts of a computer and their operations can help you understand all the main components that make up a computer.

The most important hardware components are Motherboard, CPU, RAM memory, power supply, visual display controller, IO system, Bus and hard disk drives. The keyboard is an input device that you use to enter data into the computer.

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