Factors for the Progress of the Sriwijaya Kingdom That Can Develop
Rancakmedia.com - Here are the actors for the progress of the Sriwijaya kingdom who helped its development, see the information in the article which we will discuss below until it's finished.
According to historical maps, Sriwijaya is a maritime empire, the territory in Sumatra stretches from Cambodia, Southern Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, West Java and possibly Central Java based on the map.
Sriwijaya translates to "resplendent victory" in Sanskrit, where sri means "shining" and wijaya means "glory."
I Tsing, a Tang Dynasty Chinese monk, wrote in 671 that he visited Srivijaya and stayed there for six months. This is the oldest evidence that the Srivijaya kingdom existed. The Kedukan Bukit inscription from Palembang, which dates from 682 and speaks of Sriwijaya, also dates from the 7th century.
Several battles, notably the invasion of Srivijaya by Rajendra Chola I of Coromandel in 1025, reduced Srivijaya's dominance in his vassal provinces, and by 1183, Srivijaya's power came under the control of the Dharmasraya kingdom.
After its fall, the kingdom was forgotten and its existence was only rediscovered through a 1918 publication by the French historian George Coedès of the Collège Français d'Extrême-Orient.
Sumatra is home to the Sriwijaya Kingdom. Palembang is considered as the most likely location for the epicenter. Around 600 AD, the Sriwijaya kingdom was established. At its greatest point, the Sriwijaya Kingdom was given the title "National Kingdom I" because of its control over almost the entire archipelago and its neighboring countries.
From the banks of the Musi River in South Sumatra to the Malacca Strait (at that time a trade route between India and China), through the Sunda Strait, the Bangka Strait, Jambi and the Malacca Peninsula, its territory can be found.
It was Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanegara, the founding father of the kingdom, who brought it to the pinnacle of splendor under the reign of Balaputradewa.
Various Factors for the Progress of the Sriwijaya Kingdom
Various factors led to progress in the Sriwijaya Kingdom, including:
- As a major stop on the Sriwijaya world trade route
- Has a fairly large fleet of merchant ships,
- You could say that the Sriwijaya fleet was formidable.
- The Funan Kingdom's invasion is over.
- Establishing trade relations with Bengal and Colamandala in India, Srivijaya's trade traffic became more congested.
The Progress and Decline of the Sriwijaya Kingdom
The Srivijaya Kingdom was one of the largest maritime empires. Founded in the 7th century, it continues to grow rapidly. Sriwijaya's growth was due to its strategic position and being on international trade routes at that time.
The Malacca Strait and the Sunda Strait became places that were effectively controlled by the Sriwijaya Kingdom. The two straits are the main trade routes through which many other countries pass.
The Development of the Progress of the Sriwijaya Kingdom
The following are some of the developments of the Sriwijaya Kingdom, namely:
The expansion of the Srivijaya Empire to the archipelago and beyond is explained in detail in Edi Hernadi's 2019 book, The National History of Indonesia.
Factors driving the growth of the Srivijaya Empire:
On the transportation and trade routes between East Asia and South Asia, the Srivijaya Empire was located. Palembang, on the banks of the Musi River, served as the administrative capital of the Sriwijaya Kingdom. With a very strategic position to encourage traders to carry out their business activities.
In addition, the Malacca and Sunda Straits were under the jurisdiction of Sriwijaya, making them important players in the archipelago's trade.
The Malacca Strait connects China and India through international trade. The mouth of the Musi River is guarded by a group of islands that function as natural harbors. Government and military operations of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya were very suitable for this kind of weather situation.
The collapse of Vietnam's Funan Kingdom
The collapse of the Funan Kingdom in Vietnam occurred due to the onslaught of Cambodian attacks. Because of this, the Sriwijaya Kingdom could quickly become a well-developed maritime empire.
After Dapunta Hyang Srijayanagara died, the Sriwijaya Kingdom was ruled by Balaputradewa. Balaputradewa ruled the Sriwijaya Kingdom in the 9th century. The Syailendra dynasty still had Balaputradewa among its members.
During the reign of Balaputradewa, the Sriwijaya Kingdom entered its golden age. An important figure in the Srivijay kingdom, King Balaputradewa of Nalanda, is represented as the supreme head of state.
King Balaputradewa from Sriwijaya built a hostel for Srivijayan children who attended school in Nalanda, India.
At that time, India and Bengal, where the Nalanda school was located, were ruled by King Dewapaladewa. Buddhism in that period also witnessed great growth.
Community Social Development
Economic progress is inseparable from the social welfare of the people of the Sriwijaya Kingdom. The Sriwijaya kingdom also maintained strong relations with neighboring kingdoms.
The aim of this partnership is to increase the social interaction of the environment. The community is also given the option to study in Nalanda. Great teachers like Dharmapala and Sakyakirti lived and taught in Sriwijaya.
The Srivijaya Kingdom's economy grew because of its advantageous position. In addition, as a major trading center in Southeast Asia,
Trade in the Malacca Straits has a significant impact on the local community. This is according to the website of the Ministry of Education and Culture (Kemendikbud).
Where they are active in trade and shipping. Prosperity is achieved in society. The stopping of foreign ships was a very profitable commercial move for the Sriwijaya kingdom.
Development of Politics and Governance
The Sriwijaya kingdom began to develop under the rule of Dapunta Hyang Srijayanagara. Where the area spread to various places. According to the Kedukan Bukit and Talang Tuo inscriptions, this happened.
According to the inscriptions, Dapunta Hyang developed significantly in the 7th century. The following are examples of areas where control has been achieved:
- Tulang-Bawang which is located in the Lampung area.
- The Kedah area is located on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. The conquest of the Sriwijaya Kingdom against
- Kedah took place between 682-685 AD.
- Bangka Island is located at the confluence of international trading roads. The area was successfully controlled in 686 AD based on the Kota Kapur inscription.
- Jambi area which is located on the banks of the Batanghari River.
- The conquest of the area took place in 686 AD.
- This is evidenced by the Karang Berahi inscription.
- The Isthmus of Kra is the northern part of the Malay Peninsula. The position of the Isthmus of Kra is very important, because the distance between the west coast and the east coast is very close.
Mastery of the Isthmus of Kra is known from the Ligor inscription which dates to 775 AD.
The collapse of the Srivijaya Kingdom
When Sanggrama Wijayatunggawarman led the government, the Sriwijaya Kingdom fell. The Colomandala kingdom in India launched an attack on the Srivijaya Kingdom during this period.
In this struggle, King Sanggrama was imprisoned but was finally released. As a result of the onslaught of the Colomandala Kingdom, Sriwijaya's position weakened.
In 1275, the Srivijaya Kingdom was invaded by the Malay and Singosari kingdoms within the scope of the Pamalayu expedition.
In 1337, the Majapahit kingdom attacked and sacked Srivijaya, destroying the kingdom. In addition, there were small kingdoms that broke away from the influence of the Sriwijaya Kingdom.
The kings of the Srivijaya Kingdom
The Sriwijaya Kingdom was ruled by the following kings:
- Dapunta Hyang Srijayanagara
- Sri Sudamaniwarmadewa
- Sanggrama Wijayatunggawarman
It is an honor to have you as our guest today, Mr. Sanggram.
4 Factors Supporting the Rapid Development of the Sriwijaya Kingdom
- Its strategic location on the India-China trade route
- As a commercial center, Sriwijaya controlled the Malacca Straits, the Sunda Strait, the Malay Peninsula and the Isthmus of Kra.
- Sriwijaya and its surroundings were valuable trading commodities, especially spices and gold, which were easy to obtain.
- Its naval power was strong enough to be able to establish relations and cooperate with the Indian and Chinese Empires.
The Srivijaya Kingdom did build a formidable naval force to guard its vast maritime territory. As a result, trading can proceed without incident so that people can live safely and prosper.
Sriwijaya was a maritime kingdom on Sumatra that controlled parts of Cambodia, southern Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and possibly West and Central Java. After its fall, the kingdom was forgotten and its existence was only rediscovered by the historian George Coedès.
Sriwijaya's growth is due to its strategic position and being on international trade routes. The government and military operations of the Srivijaya Kingdom suited this climate well, making it a well-developed maritime empire in the 9th century. The Malacca Strait is a major trade center in Southeast Asia.