What Causes Hypertension in Humans? Here's the Explanation

Rancakmedia.com – The following is an explanation of the causes of hypertension in humans and this is the cause and how to prevent it from hypertension. Let's see the article below.

Cases of high blood pressure or hypertension continue to increase from year to year. The Ministry of Health's End of 2018 Riskes data revealed that the prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia increased from 25.8% in 2013 to 34.1%.

Even though it continues to increase, avoiding hypertension can still be done. Knowing the many things that can cause high blood pressure, also called hypertension, can help you lower your chances of getting it in the future.

Based on the cause, there are two main forms of hypertension, namely primary hypertension and secondary hypertension. Both forms of hypertension, regardless of the underlying cause, must be monitored closely.

High blood pressure can lead to serious hypertension problems, including heart disease and kidney failure, if not managed properly. In fact, the things women have to deal with actually exacerbate the risk factors for high blood pressure.

Causes of Primary Hypertension

Primary hypertension or often called essential hypertension, is a condition high blood pressure for no apparent reason. This category includes up to 95% of people with high blood pressure.

Most people with this type of high blood pressure show no signs or symptoms that you have high blood pressure.

Primary hypertension can be experienced by all ages, although it most often appears in middle age. The cause of primary hypertension is not known with certainty. Experts, on the other hand, believe that a combination of heredity and poor lifestyle factors may be to blame.

Factors Causing Primary Hypertension

The following are some of the factors that may contribute to the cause of primary hypertension:

Too Much Salt Consumption

Not all salt is terrible. However, the possibility of salt causing hypertension when consumed in excess is low.

Adding salt to your food can increase your blood sodium levels. Excess sodium will make it difficult for the kidneys to get rid of excess fluid in the body, resulting in fluid buildup. Finally, this accumulation of fluid causes blood pressure to increase.

Too much salt consumption also produces excessive pressure on the artery walls. This increase in pressure causes the arteries to thicken and narrow, causing blood pressure to increase.

Eventually, the artery will burst or become blocked. If these arteries are damaged, blood flow to organs such as the heart and brain will slow down.

Salt consumption does not only come through the addition of table salt or table salt. Salt or salt that is at risk of causing hypertension can be present in different ways, for example in packaged food or fast food.

Research published in the Journal of Human Hypertension shows that reducing the amount of salt (in any form) from 10 grams to 6 grams per day lowers the risk of high blood pressure.

Reducing salt consumption can also reduce deaths from stroke by 14% and deaths from coronary heart disease by 9%, both of which are caused by complications related to hypertension.

A salt-reduced hypertension diet will be prescribed for you if you have a history of high blood pressure. Even though you often take high blood pressure medication, you should still limit salt consumption to avoid the effects of hypertension.

Frequent Stress

Blood pressure can increase due to stress. When stressed, the body produces the chemicals cortisol and adrenaline, which can cause an increase in heart rate. Blood vessels can constrict when an increase in this hormone occurs, increasing blood pressure.

The increase in blood pressure caused by stress only lasts for a short time. Experts are not at all sure that stress can cause hypertension in the long term.

On the other hand, reducing your stress can improve your health and help you maintain a healthy blood pressure.

Allowing stress to persist can cause unwanted changes in a person's way of life. Stress often causes you to "want" to smoke, drink, or even overeat.

Well, in the end, these things are the cause of rising blood pressure and symptoms of hypertension occurring.

Stress often occurs due to many factors, such as work, family, or money. Stress can also arise due to lack of sleep. A person's blood pressure can be affected as a result of sleep deprivation.

Lazy to Move

Undiagnosed high blood pressure or hypertension is a common cause of high blood pressure or hypertension. The heart rate of a sedentary person often increases.

This causes the heart to have to work extra hard to pump blood, which eventually leads to an increase in blood pressure or hypertension.

So, if you want to prevent hypertension, don't use it as an excuse not to exercise. Start at first with light but consistent and regular activities, such as walking.

Regular physical activity or exercise has long been known to be beneficial in keeping blood pressure stable. In conclusion, exercising regularly can help you avoid things that put you at risk for high blood pressure, also known as hypertension.

Overweight or Obesity

High blood pressure is closely related to obesity or being overweight. Hypertension is most often caused by these two factors.

If you have a BMI above 23, you are considered overweight. Obesity is defined as a BMI greater than or equal to 25.

To get started, use this BMI calculator to determine your actual weight and height. A high value of your BMI may be a sign of the cause of hypertension in humans.

The more blood your body needs to transport oxygen and nutrients to all of its tissues, the heavier it is. Because the heart has to work harder, blood pressure will rise over time, which can lead to hypertension.

Smoking habit

Smoking is also the main cause of hypertension, which is an increase in blood pressure. The first puff of a cigarette is known to cause a significant spike in blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure can increase by as much as 4 millimeters of mercury.

This is because the presence of harmful compounds in it, such as nicotine, can damage the lining of the artery walls. As a result, the arteries narrow, increasing blood pressure.

Increased blood pressure due to smoking can also be a cause of long-term damage to the blood vessels of hypertensive patients.

Thus, active smokers with high blood pressure are at risk of experiencing complications of hypertension, such as stroke, heart disease, and heart attack.

Excessive Liquor Consumption

Liquor (alcohol) or alcoholic beverages is another cause of hypertension or high blood pressure. The Mayo Clinic says that drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to dangerous levels.

Drinking more than three alcoholic drinks in a row will temporarily increase blood pressure, but doing so regularly can lead to hypertension in the long term.

According to the American Heart Association (AHA), alcohol can increase blood fat levels, which can cause fatty deposits to build up in the artery walls.

When this happens, blood pressure rises, which makes other health problems more likely, such as a heart attack, stroke, or problems with other vital organs.

Causes of Secondary Hypertension

In other circumstances, another medical condition that has been attacked may be the cause of human hypertension or high blood pressure. This disorder is known as secondary hypertension. The use of some drugs also has the potential to cause hypertension or secondary types of hypertension.

Secondary hypertension tends to appear unexpectedly and can cause blood pressure to spike higher than normal.

Factors Causing Secondary Hypertension

Here are some diseases and drugs that can cause hypertension in humans or secondary high blood pressure:

Sleep Apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea, the medical term for difficulty breathing while you sleep, causes your breathing to stop for a moment. The oxygen level in the blood drops as a result of this disorder.

When this happens, the heart and blood vessels may not work as they should, which can cause blood pressure to rise.

Sleep apnea not only raises your blood pressure but also puts you at risk for heart attack, stroke and irregular heartbeats (palpitations).

Kidney Problems

New research suggests that high blood pressure may be linked to kidney causes. Hypertension in the kidneys causes this disorder. What is the relationship between hypertension and kidney disease?

Hypertension due to kidney problems occurs when the blood arteries in the kidneys narrow (stenosis) (stenosis). Lack of blood flow to the kidneys causes you to believe that your body is dehydrated.

Because of this, the kidneys release hormones that make the body retain more salt and water. High blood pressure, also called hypertension, occurs when blood vessels are too filled with fluid.

Narrowing of the arteries in the renal arteries is primarily caused by atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. This condition is also a frequent cause of heart attacks and strokes. However, the cause of hardening of the arteries is still unclear.

Tumors of the Adrenal Glands

Abnormalities of the adrenal glands are another cause of hypertension. Located near your kidneys, the adrenal glands are a pair of small structures. These glands make hormones such as aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which in turn help keep blood pressure under control.

The adrenal glands make extra hormones if you detect a tumor. Hypertension can arise as a result of increased levels of this hormone.

Apart from that, you may also experience additional symptoms and indications, such as dizziness, excessive sweating, fast heart rate, and easy bruising in various places on the body.

Thyroid Disorders

According to the American Family Physician website, high blood pressure or hypertension is often associated with the cause of the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism affects about 3% of people with hypertension.

How can thyroid disorders be the cause of hypertension in humans? The thyroid gland is an organ that makes hormones. These hormones affect many parts of the body, such as metabolism, body temperature, heart rate, and weight.

Hypothyroidism is a disease in which the thyroid gland cannot make enough hormones for the body. High blood pressure and the development of hypertension can be caused by a variety of thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, overproduction of thyroid hormone, or hyperthyroidism.

Diabetes history

Another disease that can cause high blood pressure is diabetes mellitus, which also includes type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

People with diabetes have insulin deficiency or insulin dysfunction, which makes it difficult for the body to properly metabolize sugar. One of the body's main mechanisms for converting sugar into energy is insulin.

The body's cells cannot handle sugar if insulin is not working, and as a result, sugar builds up in the blood vessels, increasing the risk of hypertension.

If there is a lot of sugar in the blood, there is a much higher chance of health problems, such as heart disease, stroke, kidney problems and other health problems.

Factors Causing Hypertension in Humans

In addition, there are the following medical problems that can cause high blood pressure or hypertension:

Vascular Birth Defects

There are several over-the-counter and prescription medications, such as:

  1. Family planning pills.
  2. Flu and cold medicine.
  3. decongestant.
  4. Analgesic.
  5. Cocaine and amphetamines are two examples of illegal substances.


Factors that cause hypertension in humans or high blood pressure

The phrase "risk factor" itself is not actually a direct cause of hypertension or high blood pressure. Habits, health problems, and other comparable factors increase your risk of contracting a disease.

In other words, the more risk factors you have for high blood pressure, the more likely you will have high blood pressure.

The risk factors for hypertension are divided into two, namely those that cannot be changed and those that can be changed. You can't do anything about the following factors if you have a high risk of hypertension.


As we age, our blood vessels become stiffer and lose their ability to expand and contract the way they used to. As a result, blood pressure also increases.

Adults are more likely than children to have high blood pressure, even though children are equally at risk.

Kidney or heart disease are the most common causes of hypertension in children. Hypertension in children can also be exacerbated by unhealthy daily living habits.

History of Hypertension in the Family

If a parent, sibling, or other family member has it, you most likely will too.


Until the age of 64, men are more susceptible to high blood pressure than women. Meanwhile, around the age of 65 and over, women are more prone to suffer from high blood pressure.


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, black people appear to be more susceptible to hypertension than the rest of the population. Being born black increases your risk of developing high blood pressure early in life.

While the risk factors for hypertension that can still be changed include:

  1. Overweight and obesity are both medical conditions.
  2. Fewer moves.
  3. A diet that is not good for you (lack of salt and too much potassium).
  4. Alcohol addiction.
  5. Emphasize.
  6. Smoke.
  7. Consumption of certain drugs, such as NSAIDs, birth control pills, flu medications, and so on.
  8. Have a history of certain conditions, such as obstructive sleep apnea or diabetes.

Specific Hypertension Risk Factors in Women

Hypertension affects men and women in various ways. Other specifically for women can increase the risk of women getting hypertension. The following are risk factors in women that can cause hypertension:

Use of birth control pills

Women who are overweight, have high blood pressure during a previous pregnancy, have a family history of high blood pressure, or smoke may be more likely to have an increase in blood pressure when you take birth control pills.


Gestational hypertension, or high blood pressure during pregnancy, is something that can cause women who are expecting to have high blood pressure.

This problem can develop quickly, so it's common for your doctor to check your blood pressure frequently during pregnancy.


A woman's body goes through hormonal changes related to menopause. These hormonal changes can lead to weight gain, which can harm your blood pressure.

Although women have an increased risk of developing hypertension, you can reduce your risk by living a healthy lifestyle before taking birth control pills, becoming pregnant, or even approaching menopause.


Those are some of the causes of hypertension in humans. Preventing hypertension is still cheaper and time consuming than treating it. A high level of self-control and a commitment to a healthy lifestyle have a major effect on lowering blood pressure.

Some people who have this condition may not even need to take medication because they have effectively made lifestyle adjustments to regulate blood pressure.

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