Understanding Computer Networks and the Internet

Rancakmedia.com – In this article we will provide information for an understanding of the meaning of computer networks, including the internet, see the details in the following article, enjoy reading.

The internet is one of the technologies that can drive human growth and prosperity throughout the world. Through connectivity between devices, we can communicate quickly, exchange and obtain up-to-date information without being hindered by distance, even being involved and working together without having to meet face to face.

Actually, the internet is nothing but a computer network. Any collection of interconnected electronic equipment, such as a computer, is a computer network. However, the area of computer networks on the internet is quite large. very broad to cover almost all countries in the world.

Therefore, computers and computer networks are very important for technological progress and the quality of life for everyone. Connecting multiple devices is possible, but how exactly do you do it? What kind of computer network can be set up to provide connectivity?

Definition of Computer Networks

What is needed to access or set up a computer network? We've put together a group of presentations to help us figure out how to solve this problem.

Definition of Computer Networks

As previously explained, computer network is a series of computer devices that are connected to each other. A computer network is a network consisting of many computers and other electronic devices that are interconnected to perform data processing, information dissemination, and data exchange (Chandra & Kosdiana, 2018).

Connection of multiple devices implies that devices on a network can exchange data and information with each other, whether in the form of text, photos, or documents, as well as direct interactions such as chatting or sharing the use of programs and hardware such as printers and scanners.

There are times when the computer devices that we use are not connected to anywhere and we can only access various types of data and information stored on computer storage media. In addition, we may link to other computers through special peripherals on computer equipment.

The peripherals are then connected via a network cable to another computer so that the two computers can be connected to each other (peer to peer).

As technology improves, connectivity between devices continues to grow from just a link between two devices to multiple devices. A “server computer” is a computer that is made to ensure that all other computers are connected properly.

The Internet can be considered as one of the peak growth of computer networks. Small-scale computer networks, on the other hand, continue to be used frequently. Especially if the computer network contains sensitive material that cannot be accessed by the public, such as company data and information that cannot be disclosed to the public.

Various Types of Computer Networks

The Internet has emerged as a distinct entity from traditional computer networks, in that it has become a unique entity unto itself.

Various Types of Computer Networks

From the description above, we can conclude that there are many types of computer networks that have varying network coverage or sizes.

Different types of computer networks also have different roles and purposes. The following is an explanation of the various types of computer networks.

Local Network (Local Area Network/LAN)

A local network is a wired or wireless (wireless) computer network that connects computers with other devices in limited areas such as households, schools, laboratories, university campuses, or business buildings (Team of the Ministry of Education and Culture, 2021).

In essence, a local network or local area network has a very narrow scope or coverage. This type of LAN network is used by all devices on the network to connect to the network's central hub, which usually holds all the data and information used by the network (Rahman, 2018).

For example, information that is only needed by children at school or information that can only be accessed by workers in the office.

Devices or computers on the local network can only be accessed by other devices on the same network. Every device or computer connected to a local network will have a unique identification (ID) that is different from one another.

The unique identifier on a network is referred to as an IP address (IP address). For example, the computer's IP address is 192.168.1.1. Other computers with the same IP address, such as 192.168.1.2, will not be able to establish a connection.

That's because the IP address acts as the address for sending data from one device to another. Through IP addresses, all computers can identify other computer addresses so that they can transfer data to the target computer.

In LAN implementation, it takes at least two different types of devices. One device is referred to as a "server", which is a specific computer to serve and manage all network connections between computers in the network.

Other devices are referred to as clients, which are computers connected to each other through services and server computer organizations.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

MAN network is a computer network that connects computers with other devices in a very wide area that includes a city (metropolitan). The MAN network is a mixture of many local networks.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

In simple terms, office A's local network is connected to B's local network, which may be close to or quite far from each other. The coverage area covered by this network extends from 10 to 50 km.

The use of a MAN network consists of many sites that are not too far away, for example integrated university networks, office areas, and government locations. Even if the factory, agency or other building is far away, the company office may still be connected to it through a network of other buildings (Anand et al., 2019).

Wide Area Network(WAN)

The Large Territory Network is a computer network that has a very wide range of connections, generally even covering the territory of a nation. The network has the capacity to facilitate the development of communication connections between several remote devices.

It joins several smaller networks that serve as access providers for various network equipment, including computers and other devices, to the final destination, just like a MAN does. Voronin and Davydov (2017)

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)

Using a wired internet connection to devices is becoming less common, or at least less reliable. This is related to the increasingly common use of WiFi, which connects our gadgets via wireless or wireless networks.

Networks using wireless technology or using signals as connection providers so that computers can connect to each other, are called wireless local area network or WLANs. WLAN uses radio waves as a transmission channel for data transfer and dissemination (Kusriyanto & Putra, 2017).

Computer Network Hardware

In the previous article it was explained that computer devices cannot connect to the network unless they have certain peripherals.

Computer Network Hardware

The unique peripheral hardware for computer networks is computer network hardware which can be exemplified as follows.

Ethernet/LAN Cards

A LAN card, or network card, is a peripheral that allows devices to connect to a computer network. Most of these cards are easily accessible and installed in various electronic devices, such as PC motherboards. This device, which is often called Ethernet, comes in both wired and wireless forms.

Routers

In the world of networking, a router is a piece of network infrastructure that connects two networks together. For example, a router is used to connect a wired network with a wireless network so that other devices can access it without the need for cables.

Network cable

As the name suggests, a network cable is a connection that can connect multiple computer devices. The fastest and most reliable connections are still using wired connections, despite the widespread adoption of wireless connections in recent years.

UTP, STP, and fiber optic connections are just a few examples of the many types of network cables available today. The cable that is widely used in local networks is the RG-45 cable.

Hubs

According to Sofana (2013, p. 68), a hub is a device that can replicate data frames originating from one computer to all ports on the hub so that all ports connected to the hub port will also receive data. You can connect multiple computers to the hub at the same time, making it a very useful device.

Server Computer

Server computers are more powerful and durable computers than standard desktop computers. This is because the server computer will run non-stop for 24 hours to provide services to the computer.

Because of this, server computers are often kept in separate rooms with a cooling system built specifically for them.

Computer Network Software

Apart from having the hardware, computer networks also require certain software to be able to communicate properly. This is the server operating system currently in use. For example, there are versions of Windows built specifically for running servers.

Computer Network Software

Other Linux distributions to consider include Ubuntu, Centos, and more. File, printer, and e-mail services, as well as network security, are all managed by network servers.

Ideally, the use of a separate server on a dedicated network, which is then connected to the client computers indirectly. However, separate servers are not essential for small networks.

Definition of Internet Network

Unlike a local network that only connects devices with a limited range in a certain area, the internet network has connections with a wider range that can connect devices all over the world.

The term “Internet” means “network-interconnection,” and it is a worldwide network of computers that connects many devices.

The internet network enables the exchange of packet data (packet switching communication protocol) to serve billions of users around the world. The internet network can also be connected to a wide area network (WAN).

The internet began with the ARPA (Advanced Research Project Agency Network) research project supported by the United States Department of Defense in 1969 (Kemdikbud Team, 2021, p. 94). (Ministry of Education and Culture Team, 2021, p. 94). ARPANET is the name given to this project.

In the 1980s, with the help of several public institutions and commercial companies, research finally became public infrastructure.

To access the internet network, our device must be connected to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) via the specified internet connection method. When a wired or wireless ISP connection connects LAN devices to the internet, local network devices can use the internet.

For example, if the local network is connected to the Indie Home ISP, then we can connect our smartphones or cellphones to the network via Wifi so that our smartphone devices can access the internet.

Definition of Internet Network

Just like a local network, each device on the internet network must also have a separate IP address. Because this IP address is widely valid (worldwide), it is referred to as a public IP.

Because not all local devices connected to the internet have a public IP, because usually a public IP is only used on the main device that is connected directly to the internet network, in this case there is a modem connected to the ISP.

Internet connectivity

Connections to the internet are often made via internet cables, which can be coaxial cables, fiber optic cables, or twisted pair cables. However, as we all know, we can also connect to the internet without the need for a cable (wireless connection).

The Internet can be accessed in a number of ways, including through wired or wireless use. Our gadgets can connect to the internet using the following types of internet connection:

Internet Connectivity On Wired Networks

The telephone and television cable networks connected to Internet Service Providers are the most common wired connectivity networks. Following are some examples of wired network connectivity.

Internet Connectivity On Wired Networks

Dial-Up PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)

This internet connectivity was most often used when the internet had just arrived in Indonesia. A cable called PSTN is used on a dial-up basis to connect to the landline telephone network (Public Switched Telephone Network).

The three must-have items for this connection are a computer, modem, and landline. Speeds for dial-up Internet connections range from 12 to 20 kbps, with a top speed of 56 kbps.

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)

Dial-Up and ADSL both use modem technology to connect to the internet. The modem used operates at frequencies from 34 kHz to 1104 kHz. Other than these changes, ADSL internet is almost the same as dial-up. The only difference is the modem and connection speed.

lan

We may access the internet by joining a local network (LAN) connected to the Internet Service Provider via a telephone cable or antenna via the Internet Service Provider.

Internet Connectivity On Wireless Networks

Internet connectivity via a wireless network is an internet network that does not require cables to connect one device to another. The following are some examples of the internet connectivity available through wireless networks.

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)

This form of GPRS internet connection uses radio waves for data and voice transmission. When used with a cell phone, GPRS can send and receive data as well as voice.

GPRS General Packet Radio Service

In recent years, 3G, 4G, and even 5G have taken the GPRS position, and the basic concepts are comparable but not identical.

Wifi

Wireless fidelity (abbreviated as “Wifi”) is a common method of connecting to the internet without using cables. One type of wireless connectivity that is often used is Wifi, because of its practical benefits and reliability. However, the downside of a wifi connection is its limited range.

Satellite Access

Satellite dish is used to provide high speed access for this form of internet connection. Internet access via satellite is not cheap, especially in Indonesia. Because the satellites are so far away in space, these connections are also known to have long lag times.

Data Communication with Mobile Phones

Previously we have discussed about internet connectivity via wireless, which can be done using GPRS. GPRS is the network that cell phones use to connect to cell phones and other devices.

But as technology has changed, this kind of connection has been replaced by other connections that are much faster and more reliable.

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)

This is an internet network for mobile phones that provides speeds between 35 and 171 Kpbs. This speed is usually sufficient for sending messages that are not very long.

EDGE (Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution)

It is the internet network that offers greater speed than GPRS as it provides speeds between 120 and 384 Kbps.

EDGE Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution

3G

The United Mobile Telecommunication Technology (UMTT) data transmission protocol is used on the GPRS version 3 internet network, resulting in a speed of 384 Kbps–2 Mbps.

HSPA (3.5G)

Speeds range from 600 kbps to 10 Mbps, making it 3G+, the next step up from 3G. HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access), also known as H+, on our smartphone screens offers constant speeds in the region of 7.2 Mbps.

4G/LTE (Long Term Evolution)

This is the fourth generation of GPRS, which provides speeds up to 100 Mbps. 4G/LTE technology can be used by almost all networks on the market today.

Data Protection When Surfing

Is the information we enter when accessing the website and logging in using usernames and passwords safe from prying eyes? To achieve this, we must learn how to distinguish whether a site is secure or inaccessible.

To quickly determine if a website is secure, look for the HTTPS address in the address bar. When HTTPS is enabled, a lock-like symbol appears next to the website address in the address bar.

Why? Understanding the difference between HTTP and HTTPS is very important if we want to know why. HTTP, or Hypertext Transfer Protocol, is a protocol that governs communication between clients (computer users) and servers (computers that store data that can be accessed through websites).

Data Protection When Surfing

In general, the communication mechanism between client and server is that the client makes a request to the server, then the server responds to the website. The answer to the question may be a file that will be displayed in the browser.

The HTTP protocol governs each of these actions in a number of ways. Unfortunately, HTTP does not guarantee data security; therefore, there is a possibility of data being modified. As a more secure alternative to HTTP, HTTPS ensures the integrity of the data sent.

HTTPS is more secure because it uses encryption (data encoding) called SSL, which stands for Secure Sockets Layer. SSL is a worldwide standard security technology that enables encrypted communication between a web browser and a web server.

SSL is widely used to make it less likely that hackers and identity thieves can steal or destroy important information (such as credit card numbers, usernames, passwords, emails, etc.).

Any encryption security standards that SLL enforces must be validated by a third party authority. SSL certificates help validate the identity of websites to ensure visitors that the website is not a fake website and encrypt data that is being transferred.

FAQs

Below, we have provided information about the questions that most of you ask, see the information in the following article:

What's the Difference Between a Computer Network and the Internet?

Computer networks and internet networks are basically two separate things. Although there is a meeting place between the two. Then, what differentiates the two? First, let's first identify what a network is.

What is the Difference Between Computer Networks and the Internet

A network is a system consisting of a number of network devices that work together to achieve a certain goal. So, a computer network is a system consisting of a number of computers and related gadgets that work together to achieve certain goals, especially sharing resources.

In addition to data and information, these resources can be physical devices such as printers and CPUs. In a computer network, a computer can be connected to other computers using wired or wireless media.

People in the general public often refer to computer networks as "local area networks" (LANs) or "local computer networks." As a result, computer network is a broad term, while the internet is more specific.-network or inter-network.

In addition, sometimes it can also be considered that a computer network connects computers with other computers and devices to be used together to save equipment and costs. People all over the world can connect with each other through the internet network.

Does the Internet Include Computer Networks?

As far as we know, the Internet is the largest computer network in the world that we have ever built. The reach of the internet extends to almost every corner of the world.

Does the Internet Include Computer Networks

A wide variety of computer devices, including PCs, cell phones, laptops, tablets and televisions, allow anyone to access various sources of information.

A computer network is a group of interconnected computers, whether at a school, business, or in a public place such as an internet cafe. There are several types of computer networks that are characterized by certain criteria.

One of them is based on its geographic reach, especially LAN, MAN, and WAN. It starts with the first having local coverage, then city, and then region, or even continent.

LAN is a computer network with the smallest or narrowest coverage, while WAN is a computer network with the largest coverage.

Several forms of data transmission media used in wired and wireless computer networks have also been listed as subcategories. Thus what is meant by a computer network.

If so, what exactly is the internet network for? The Internet network can actually be described as part of a computer network. WAN, or wide area network, is one way to classify the Internet.

It is possible to connect computers and people from all over the world through a computer network. Connecting computers and people around the world is done through internet utilization of various network components and software.

However, it is not as visible to the human eye as it is to a computer network. For example, computer networks in companies, schools, or internet cafes. We might see it as a network whose devices are visible to the eye.

Where Does the Internet Network Come From?

ARPANET (Advanced Research Project Agency Network) is a network built by the ARPA agency in 1969 to showcase the hardware and software capabilities of UNIX-based computers. This later became the Internet.

Where Does the Internet Network Come From?

The original purpose of the building project was for military reasons. The Department of Defense built a distributed computer network system by connecting computers in critical places to overcome difficulties in the event of a nuclear attack and prevent centralized information, which could easily be destroyed in the event of a conflict.

The Arpanet originally merged with the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah in 1969, forming an integrated network and was launched in October 1972. The ARPANET was initially limited to only four locations.

Not long after this initiative spread to all regions, all institutions in the country wanted to join, so that it was impossible for the ARPANET to handle it. Therefore, the ARPANET was split into two, namely "MILNET" for military purposes and the new, smaller "ARPANET" (Advanced Research Project Agency Network) for non-military applications such as universities.

The merger of the two networks eventually became known as "DARPA Internet", which was later shortened to the Internet.

Conclusion

A computer network is a collection of interconnected electronic equipment, such as a computer. Connecting multiple devices is possible, but how exactly do you do it?

The Internet can be considered as one of the peak growth of computer networks. Small-scale computer networks, on the other hand, continue to be used frequently. Different types of computer networks have different roles and purposes. This is the information that we can convey, I hope this article can be useful for everyone, that's all and thank you.

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