Types and Characteristics of Hard Waste Material Crafts

Rancakmedia.com - You need to know that hard waste material crafts have their types and characteristics, for those of you who want to know more, please read the article below to get the information.

Waste is defined as unwanted and human-generated waste material which, if not handled properly, can have an adverse effect on the environment. Quoted from the Valuable Waste module (2018: 10), waste has various types based on its grouping, which consists of solid or hard waste, liquid waste, gas waste, and sound waste.

What is meant by “hard waste” is waste that has a hard density, is viscous, is difficult to handle, and takes a long time to decompose in the soil. Organic and inorganic solid waste are two subtypes of hard waste. It's easy to make interesting and unusual crafts from biological and inorganic waste.

Definition of Hard Waste Material Crafts

What is meant by "hard waste crafts" are crafts made from industrial waste materials (waste) that are solid, hard, and not easily modified and shaped. Garbage is a material that has the potential to be used as a material for making handicrafts.

Using used materials can save material capital because the price is definitely cheaper than craft materials that are deliberately made. In addition, the aesthetics of different types of solid waste are different. Clams, for example, are very difficult to imitate. On the other hand, the coconut shell has a beautiful texture on the outside.

Definition of Hard Waste Material Crafts

Through human imagination, waste, which is an unwanted material, can be transformed into various crafts that are unique, attractive and appealing to customers. To ensure that the crafts made from hard waste materials that we produce are attractive, we need a separate reference or principle regarding various aspects of planning and manufacturing. Here is the presentation.

Principles of Crafting Hard Waste Materials

When we talk about waste, we are referring to the process of treating waste to recycle it. Based on the principles of 3R waste treatment, the Ministry of Education and Culture Team (2017, p. 7) classifies solid waste products.

  1. Reduce means reducing the use of materials that cause waste.
  2. Reuse means as much as possible using something that can be reused without throwing it away and turning it into waste.
  3. Recycle means recycling the waste that is forced to be generated from the production process.
    Crafts made from hard waste are in line with recycling activities, namely recycling hard waste into handicrafts. This means, in its application, it must be ensured that the work we make helps overcome environmental problems that interfere with life.

The waste material should be the main ingredient, with the other elements only serving as the background. Remembering the 3Rs is also an important consideration during this procedure. Don't let our waste material craft manufacturing operations lead to increased carbon emissions or generate any other type of waste.

Designing hard waste materials is the process of reconstructing the uses of products that have lost their value, and we must recognize and appreciate this important premise. Therefore, our crafts must comply with environmentally friendly principles.

To be sustainable, design must take into account not only the financial viability of the product but also its impact on the environment, society and culture. To make design more responsive to global societal concerns, this is what we are dealing with.

There is no meaning if we process hard waste material but do not pay attention to its sustainability. The fact that we still depend on non-renewable natural resources, such as those used to make arts and crafts, is a major environmental problem facing us today.

Types and Characteristics of Hard Waste Materials

Organic (natural) hard waste and inorganic (man-made) hard waste are the two main types of hard waste that are often used in crafts.

Types and Characteristics of Hard Waste Materials

Organic Hard Waste

Biodegradable hard organic waste is a type of solid waste originating from land and sea natural resources (Kemendikbud Team, 2017, p. 10). Organic solid waste products include a wide variety of items, such as the following:

  1. seashell,
  2. hard fish scales,
  3. Fishbone,
  4. Four-legged animal bones (cow, buffalo, goat),
  5. Coconut shell, and
  6. Piece of wood.

Almost all hard organic waste can be reused as handicraft products, but requires equipment that is strong enough to assist in the process.

Sample Organic Hard Waste Craft

Crafts made from organic hard waste include the following:

  1. A display of an arrangement of shells
  2. Tissue holder decorated with shells
  3. Shell key chain
  4. Shell lampshade
  5. Fish scale earrings
  6. Necklace from fish scales
  7. Sandals decorated with flowers made of fish scales
  8. Miniature sea horse from fish bones
  9. Bracelet from fish bones
  10. Sambal container from coconut shell
  11. Coconut shell belt
  12. Coconut shell sandals
  13. Coconut shell keychain

Inorganic Hard Waste

Inorganic hard waste is waste that arises from man-made industrial residues and consists of strong materials which are not only destroyed with ordinary tools but require special technologies such as heating, burning and crushing (Team of the Ministry of Education and Culture, 2017, p. 12).

Examples of categories of inorganic hard waste materials include:

  1. metal plates,
  2. ceramic shards,
  3. Broken glass,
  4. Plastic containers or bottles, and
  5. Not all hard waste can be reprocessed into handicrafts due to limited tools and technology. Inorganic hard waste is a type of hard waste that causes more problems for the environment.

Example of Inorganic Hard Waste Craft

Examples of inorganic hard waste crafts include:

  1. Lampshade from old plastic toys
  2. Bags from plastic waste
  3. Accessories container from plastic bottles
  4. Flower vase decorated with ceramic shards
  5. Ornament in the shape of an animal from a mosaic of broken ceramics
  6. A pencil case made of ceramic shards
  7. Recycled glass flower vase
  8. Accessories from used glass bottles

Processing of Hard Waste Materials

Each type of hard waste undergoes the same processing procedures. Mechanical and manual processing methods exist. There are six phases of the basic treatment method for hard waste materials. According to the Ministry of Education and Culture Team (2017, p. 13), the 6 basic stages of processing hard waste materials are as follows.

Processing of Hard Waste Materials

Separation of Waste Materials

Before manufacturing anything, hard waste materials must be carefully selected to ensure that only those that cannot be used are discarded.

Waste Cleaning

When it comes to hard waste, the environment is rarely as clean as it could possibly be. In order to remove old food and drink and clean hard waste, it is necessary to wash it with detergent.


Water is often used for washing, but the waste may get wet in the first place if that is what is being washed. So drying is very important because it is still related to work hygiene and safety (anything that is wet is not durable, has the ability to stimulate the growth of bacteria, etc.).

(something that's wet doesn't last long, potentially triggering bacteria growth, etc). Drying can be done normally using direct sunlight, or it can be cleaned immediately with a dry towel.


Staining of hard waste can be done by spraying it or using a brush. It is very important that the paint used adheres properly to hard waste items such as glass and metal.

Drying after Staining

After coloring, the waste material must be dried again in direct sunlight or aired.

Refining Materials for Ready-to-Use

It is possible to finish dry waste materials so that they are easier to process into works of art. During the final step of production, different methods are used, such as cutting, forging, gluing, grinding, and sanding.

Hard Waste Material Craft Production Process

The method of making handicrafts in each area is different from the method used in other places. As a result, the methods used to create hard waste materials will vary based on the type of waste being created at each location.

Craft Production Process

As a result, solid waste materials, both organic and inorganic, come from different regions. Therefore, each region has a distinctive craft that is superior to that area.

The following is a list of used goods that can be used as raw materials for hard waste handicraft products depending on geographical conditions.

  1. Coastal or sea areas
  2. Many hard wastes are available such as clam shells, coconut shells, fish scales and fish bones.
    Mountain area
  3. Hard waste that is mostly produced in this area is pine wood, acacia wood, and camphor wood.
    Agricultural area
  4. Hard waste obtained in this area is the bones of farm animals such as bones of cows, buffaloes, goats, chickens, and fish bones.
  5. Urban area
    Hard waste generated in urban areas is usually in the form of glass shards, ceramic shards, metal scraps, and various plastic used furniture.

As explained, how to make or the production process for hard waste material crafts will really depend on the waste materials used. Therefore, the process for each type of waste will be explained in each type of hard waste craft below.


Crafts from Hard Waste Materials are crafts made from industrial waste (waste) which are solid, hard, and not easily modified and shaped. The Ministry of Education and Culture team (2017, p. 7) classifies hard waste products into organic and inorganic subtypes.

Thus the article about the types and characteristics of hard waste material crafts, I hope the article above can be helpful and useful for all of you.

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