Application of the Information Literacy Model – The following is an explanation of information literacy, where currently the use of information literacy in education in Indonesia is still a long and winding journey.

Formal education in schools must include the notion of information literacy which is the focus of this research. The history of the notion of information literacy, as well as its definitions, models under development, and actual examples of their use, are all covered in detail.

This article describes the educational benefits of implementing information literacy in schools, as well as the tactics and barriers associated with doing so.

Definition of Information Literacy

The term information literacy (IL) is different from conventional notions of literacy and information. Literacy in a broad sense includes all aspects of literacy, including the act of reading and writing.

When we use the term "information", we mean something that has been communicated or a piece of knowledge that has been acquired (The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1990).

Literacy is a translation of the common Indonesian word for the English term "literacy". Of the several reference materials such as existing dictionaries and thesaurus, some of which are the General Indonesian Dictionary by Badudu-Zain in 2001, the Indonesian Encyclopedia Volume 1 in 2009, and the Indonesian Thesaurus by Eko Endarmoko in 2007, none of which includes the word " literacy” in their collection of entries.

If you are looking for definitions of words that have the same meaning as “letters” and “the ability to read and write”, then the terms that might be used are literasi and literasi (General Indonesian Dictionary: Badudu-Zain, 2001).

The term "literacy" is included in the Nusantara Malay Dictionary, which is the result of cooperation between three countries, including Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia, in 2003, and was released by the Brunei Language and Library Council in Bandar Seri Begawan.

Literacy is defined in Brunei and Malaysia as being able to write and read. In his presentation, the author obtained information from Prof.

Sulistyo Basuki who stated that the term "literacy" has been mentioned in the 4th edition of the Big Indonesian Dictionary. As a result, the term "information literacy" is now part of the Indonesian language lexicon.

Information, when viewed from the definition of terms in the Indonesian Encyclopedia (2009), shows that information is an outline. The definition of informare/informatum means to give shape, to describe.

In addition, it is also stated that in general usage, a kind of knowledge is obtained from direct experience, through study, through questions, or through reading sources of information, such as books, schedules, or teletext.

The term information literacy is used in UNESCO publications which provide several sources of information literacy from various countries.

Since Paul G. Zurkowski coined the phrase "information literacy" in 1974, the word has gained wide acceptance.

Zurkowski (President of the Information Industry Association) recommended that a major goal of the US National Commission on Library and Information Science's national program be launch a significant program to achieve universal information literacy in 1984.

Due to the large amount of information, it can be difficult for people to understand everything. By understanding that each individual's ability to seek information varies in terms of time and the variety of information that can be accessed, there is a gap for the public to not be able to utilize information with a good and maximum understanding.

Furthermore, Zurkowski argues that those who are skilled in utilizing information sources in their work can be called information literate. There are also different definitions of developing information literacy. In his publication, George (2013) shows that:

Information literacy is a set of abilities to find, evaluate, and use information from various sources to solve problems or make choices for academic or non-academic purposes, and then communicate this new knowledge in an efficient, effective, and ethical manner.

Understanding and applying information literacy begins with reading activities in the library. Learning to read is the first step in a child's educational journey. Introduce them to the alphabet from A to Z by starting with the first letter of each word.

This lesson is intended for students in elementary schools. Even now, most kindergarten instructors have also taught their young children to read.

In order to read, children must first learn to identify and combine individual letters, and then progress to reading whole words and understanding their meaning.

The meaning of a phrase, then a paragraph, and finally the key themes of a fairy tale are conveyed word for word.

When these students excel in reading, it serves as motivation for them to continue to do excellent work. Through this process, individuals improve their reading skills. Indirectly, children also derive meaning from what they read.

To begin with, the school library's collection of books is put to good use. Students' ability to retain and synthesize concepts and ideas from the texts they read increases over time as they engage in reading activities.

Students' enthusiasm for reading might develop as a result of this approach. Because of the importance of developing a love of reading in children from an early age, this process is critical in teaching them skills such as media literacy and other forms of information literacy.

The next step of their education will be much more successful if they have this level of literacy. Students can borrow books from the school library. There are no limits on what they can read.

Bearing this in mind, libraries must also be able to cater to the reading preferences of students of all ages. This is the rationale behind the existence of the library.

People still have a strong mental image of the library as a repository for books. The diversity of books in the library collection is growing along with the growth of the library system itself.

Let's examine how the presence of libraries at first like this then changed along with the shift in librarian functions and the development of information technology.

To start, let's look at the three roles that emerge from Shera's (1972 in Ray, 2001:30) description of the "kitchen" of the library, namely:

  1. Bibliographer – the person responsible for selecting books and other materials to add to the library's collection.
  2. Reference library – a person who provides information that library users need.
  3. Cataloging.

These three roles seem stiff and distant from the wearer. It is clear that contact between librarians and users occurs only in the capacity of a reference librarian. However, library catalogs can serve as a medium for a more indirect type of communication.

It is the librarian's intention that the catalog prepared will help the user find the book he is looking for.

However, even this technique is not perfect as the user needs to know how to make use of the library catalog. Efforts to design library introduction programs or library teaching have grown.

Branch and Gilchrist (in Andretta, 2005:6) stated that in the 1970s, the Association of Colleges and Research Libraries (ACRL) defined library education as offering direction for individuals and groups in accessing materials and resources and in understanding learning aids. .

However, according to Branch and Gilchrist, the scope of user education is limited to the presentation of library items and the interpretation of learning tools, and not to the acquisition or selection of information in a learning context.

Mellon further (1988 in Andretta, 2005:6-7) argues that the challenge in implementing conventional user education is that the emphasis on this activity is mainly on library activities, which require the use of information facilities, and not on more complicated tasks.

In search of information. based on the ability to assess and think critically. This coverage fails to motivate children to become lifelong learners.

With the development of technology in the 1990s, ACRL then changed the description of this instruction library into software that conveys bibliographic instructions through a different approach that allows users to become information literate (Mellon 1988 in Andretta, 2005: 7).

Models of Information Literacy

Information literacy as a concept has come a long way since it was first proposed back in 1974.

It is clear from these developments that different countries have taken different approaches to understanding IL. Most of the established information literacy models are for application to students in schools.

This is different from what Zurkowski calls the “worker context” in his discussion.

This illustrates the awareness that students need to be equipped with the ability to solve problems systematically from an early age, so that they are ready to become information literate professionals in the future world of work.

The author brought two Wol models for this event in Malaysia during an information literacy training event that the author attended. Five different models will be examined in detail in the following paragraphs, each with its own distinctive description. The five models are:

British Models

The British Model (Wools, 2006) is a model that was first developed in 1981 by Michael Marland in his book Information Skills in the Secondary Curriculum (Wools, 2006:1). This model is the first to appear after the concept was first sparked in 1974.

Exactly three years from the target Zurkowski set in his proposal to achieve universal information literacy in America. This concept is implemented in the classroom and is called "information skills".

The following are the nine stages in the British Model for solving a problem:

  1. Formulate and analyze requirements
  2. Identify and examine sources of information
  3. Browse and find individual sources
  4. Testing, selecting sources of information
  5. Integrate these sources of information
  6. Storing and sorting information
  7. Interpret, analyze, synthesize and evaluate information
  8. Presenting or communicating information and
  9. Evaluate.

Big 6™ (Wools, 2006)

The Big 6TM is an information literacy concept founded by Michael B. Eisenberg and Robert E. Berkowitz in the United States in 1988.

This concept is quite popular not only in the United States but also in other countries which have recognized the need to adopt information literacy in the teaching and learning process in schools.

Eisenberg and Berkowitz also actively and consistently market by publishing articles that are relevant to their readers. Eisenberg and Berkowitz, This concept is widely used in Indonesian secondary schools as part of their information literacy curriculum.

Compared to other models, it is also quite easy to find information about this one on the internet.

Therefore, the Eisenberg and Berkowitz models can easily be updated via the internet by those who use them. Accordingly, its use has also gained popularity.

Moreover, the inventor of this model has produced a basic model for children in elementary schools to make it easier for them to build their information literacy skills from an early age.

This approach is known as “Super3,” which stands for “Plan, Do, Review.” So far, only one model has been specifically designed for children in primary schools.

The Big 6™ model has six steps:

  1. Determination of tasks or problems
  2. Information search strategy
  3. Search for the necessary sources of information
  4. Utilization of the information that has been obtained
  5. Integrating the information obtained from these sources
  6. Evaluation of the results of the information obtained and the process of solving the problem.

Empowering 8 (Wijetunge & Alahakoon, 2005:14)

In 2004, a special module for the benefit of Asians was formulated at the International Workshop on Information Skills for Learning convened by IFLA/ALP and NILIS at the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

The model produced by participants from Asian countries is named Empowering 8 and is considered a good model for use in Asian countries. The eight steps are:

  1. Identify the problem
  2. Explore sources of information
  3. Choose a source of information
  4. Compile the information obtained
  5. Creating a new knowledge from the information collected in response to the problem
  6. Presenting new knowledge that has been created
  7. Give an assessment of the new knowledge
  8. Apply this new knowledge.

Knowledge Management (Diao Ai Lien, 2007)

In Indonesia, a new model has been formed called Seven Steps of Knowledge Management which was founded by Diao Ai Lien and his colleagues from Atmajaya University, Jakarta in 2007.

This paradigm is a combination of Big 6TM and Empowering 8 by adding capacity to 8 from Empowering 8 to Big 6TM (Diao Ai Lien et al., 2007:6).

This strategy is intended to assist students in completing their research assignments on campus. With this particular target user, at the creation stage, the obvious action to take is to write, meaning to write the results of their studies and theses.

The seven stages of this model are as follows:

  1. Formulate the problem
  2. Identify and access information
  3. Evaluate sources of information and information
  4. Using information
  5. Create works
  6. Evaluate works
  7. Interesting lesson

Media and information literacy schemes and applications

When UNESCO first arrived in Indonesia, it brought with it a broader definition of media literacy: (MIL). UNESCO released a paper in 2011 entitled “Media and Information Literacy Curriculum for Teachers”, which became the material for a workshop in Depok.

Media and information issues are well explained in this text, although it is not clear where each is placed. This is a legitimate concern, given that only one chapter of the final report addresses issues of information literacy and the resulting lack of understanding.

When talking about democracy and good governance, we at UNESCO seek to explain the role of media literacy and information literacy from the perspective of librarians, who include media in their definition of information literacy.

Application Scheme and Concept of Media and Information Literacy

From this approach, the phases of information literacy can be defined in a cycle consisting of six steps, namely:

Need (Information Need)

In this first stage, need is a noun, not a verb, because it is an inherent aspect of human existence that is not caused by or done by people.

This has an effect on its development, which is not based on an effort but on a situation that occurs as a result of human existence.

For example, basic human needs for clothing, food and shelter. Just like how human information needs have arisen.

In personal life, requests for information are often associated with problems that must be dealt with. Students, for example, need information to complete written assignments or final assignments at school.

Completing the material that will be given to students by the lecturer means gathering information. Thus, he would be stuck among people for the rest of his days.

Not because he is looking for a need, but because the need comes by itself over and over again.

This demand is more related to the existence of aspects of problem solving in everyday life, both in personal life and in formal life in the realm of education and work.

Access (Information access)

As soon as someone understands that they need more information, the next logical step is to access that data, which are verbs that denote active information.

Access to information is done when someone determines where he should go in an effort to meet his information demands.

Access to information comes when he opens his laptop and accesses “digital library” files, or when he goes to the bookshelf in his own collection, or when he goes to the library.

As a verb, “access” information means “to enter” or “go to”.

Locate (Search)

The next phase of active action when he is at the source of information is finding the information he needs. In the library, for example, he will actively search for information that is relevant to his needs.

He is a good example in this regard. The library catalog will show him a variety of materials that provide the information he needs.

He might find a film, five books, and three journals that provide information related to the problem he wants to work on. The next step is alignment, which will follow this (synthesis).

Synthesize (Alignment)

To solve this problem, it is necessary to combine or harmonize information obtained from various sources. Critical thinking is very important at this level.

He needed to analyze whether all the information he had obtained was what he needed. In addition, he needs to use critical thinking to learn the process of gathering the information he needs.


At the build stage, you look for solutions to the problems you've tackled. The form of creation itself can change depending on one's needs. In formal education, much production takes place in written form.

It can be seen in the MIL chart above how people actively contribute to democracy and good governance by sharing ideas and voicing their opinion in public.


The last step of this cycle is evaluation. The assessment carried out involves two parts, namely the process features of finding solutions to the difficulties encountered, from the NEED to CREATE stage and evaluation of the content, meaning evaluation of the results or answers themselves.

Why is this assessment important and must exist? The response is that this information literacy cycle will continue to spin, and the solutions to the problems answered will be stored and generate new knowledge for someone.

Evaluation allows the process of "mistakes" to be corrected as well as responses refined, and this is where one's learning process rests. This learning process will continue because humans will continue to have information demands throughout their lives.

Information Literacy Cycle

What are the advantages of having a good command of English?

In the information literacy campaign conducted by APISI in 2006, various answers emerged stating that this idea was not a new concept but was not recognized by educators in schools.

Based on these comments, it seems that developing or practicing information literacy does not require "it".

APISI found that information literacy was not carried out consistently and systematically, based on many observations and studies.

The findings of the International Information Literacy Workshop sponsored by APISI in 2008 showed a very large material load that had to be completed by supervisory institutions in a period of teaching and learning activities.

Because of this, professors are pressed for time, so they 'bribe' their students to record and defend teaching.

Of course, this is far from the ideal conditions for implementing information literacy, which places students as problem solvers by utilizing information sources.

The national school curriculum seeks to make students lifelong learners. If the pattern of teaching in schools remained like the talk and chalk method, then this goal would only be wishful thinking.

That is why an understanding of the use of information literacy in a structured and integrated manner in the curriculum can help students become lifelong learners.

The young generation's fluency in using information and communication devices such as computers, mobile phones and Blackberrys, which have an internet connection which then facilitates access to various types of information from these devices, has created a new phenomenon in the lifestyle of young people.

For Godwin (2008:5), this generation is simply referred to as the "web generation" or "Google generation". Unlike the previous generation, for example, the generation that relied on the function of electronic goods manually, the current Google generation is very proficient in utilizing information technology that is installed (online).

They will immediately use the gadget and find out which functions of the equipment can be used.

There are a few things to keep in mind if you want your child to grow up to be a digital whiz. When using the internet, everyone can easily post various information on it.

In cyberspace, they have the freedom to share their thoughts and creations. Once information is posted, no entity is expressly responsible for updating or filtering the information.

It is this situation that parents or teachers should be aware of, because according to Godwin (2008), the Google generation views everything published and displayed on the web as fact, and single searches such as Amazon and Google can bring fast pleasure.

The information-gathering behavior that has been discovered is also worth studying. This Google generation, according to Godwin, does not care about ethics in using material from these sources because they do not understand or do not care (Godwin, 2008; 6).

Many employees do not realize that cutting and pasting information into information requires further processing before it can be used effectively.

Google's generational behavior described by Godwin demands the attention of parents at home and teachers at school in their learning activities. Children must be taught from an early age to respect the work of others and to be honest with the information they learn.

The skills of finding, evaluating, and using information ethically are one of a series of information literacy skills. Google's generational behavior, as outlined earlier, necessitates the need to teach information literacy as a whole.

After witnessing how technology impacts students so that they need information literacy skills, Farmer & Henri (2008) also demonstrates how information literacy affects students' reading activities.

Integrating and co-designing information literacy into academic activities not only enhances students' reading comprehension, but also enhances their learning skills and research results.

The literacy of students in post-secondary education is greater for those who have been taught information literacy in secondary schools compared to the latter group.

Thus, the information literacy skills inherent in students will not only lead to success in their formal education, but will also equip them automatically when they become members of society.

To solve problems and make judgments, they use a variety of information. Eventually, once they have mastered the basics of information literacy, they will develop a growth mindset that will allow them to continue learning throughout their lives.

LISA (Information Literacy of Santa Angela)

Ideally, the use of information literacy is incorporated into teaching and learning activities in schools. The school library provides programs to improve information literacy skills for children. These abilities are then used by students in the form of assignments in the subject matter being studied.

One of the high schools in Bandung that received an 'A' award from the National Library of Indonesia in 2010 organizes an annual library program for students in grades 7 to 9. The level of maturity of students is taken into account when creating educational materials.

Library activities planned and carried out by the library throughout the year are:

  1. Library skills.
  2. Free reading.
  3. Make a book synopsis.
  4. Make a magazine synopsis.
  5. Watching movies.

Students then use the skills acquired in library program activities in various fields, including English, Indonesian, Biology, History, and Sports.

The topic teacher offers students homework to do using available information resources in their school library.

In addition to books and other sources of information, students use the internet when visiting the library after receiving assignments.

They gather information from the internet and books, take notes, and complete their assignments. The library program model and teaching and learning activities are illustrated in the graph below.

LISA model by Hanna C. George, 2013

Completing information follows the steps listed below, which can be seen in relation to the information literacy cycle:

  1. Need à Assignments given by the teacher
  2. Locate à search for information that is carried out in an integrated manner be it the internet, books, magazines and films. This is not limited to the information available in the library, but students can look for other sources of information
  3. Access à Gathering the required information from various sources
  4. Synthesis à Alignment of information to form an answer or picture of a given task
  5. Create à Utilization of information, when students put their findings in the desired form, for example essays, answer questions or in the form of works / crafts
  6. Evaluate à Evaluate the results, which are usually in the form of values. The aspect of evaluation that is rarely or not commonly carried out is the evaluation of the process of obtaining answers to a given task.

Since students prefer to do research online, libraries should focus on teaching them how to effectively use the library's own Internet connection to get the information they need. Thus, this LISA model becomes LISA Pattern, as shown below:

LISA pattern by Hanna C George, 2013

It is clear from the LISA pattern that school library information literacy programs can play a major role in various educational topics.

Challenges and Strategies for Implementing Information Literacy in Schools

The LISA pattern above cannot be applied in all schools to teach information literacy. The use of information is highly context dependent, depending on the degree to which the host organization, library, and educational activities can all work together.

These implementation problems come from outside and within the library. The difficulty from the outside is how school stakeholders see librarians and school libraries.

The more open library programs can be conducted, the better they will perceive the role of school librarians and libraries in assisting educational activities.

However, if they continued to promote problem employees to librarian positions, the school's educational attainment would be jeopardized. Support will be lacking and the growth of physical and program support will also be delayed. Librarians themselves pose a threat from within. It is very important for librarians to realize that their career is important.

Instead of relying on how other people see their profession, librarians' professional awareness must be able to 'label', or identify, the importance of their work in order to be able to provide services that have a positive influence on learning activities in schools with confidence.

The progress of school librarians is hampered by their lack of ability to communicate effectively, advocate, or have confidence.

There is no consensus or understanding among librarians and school practitioners about how the model should be implemented and used, as Pendit et al.

(2013) demonstrated in their study in Bali. In addition, there is no information literacy standard designed to be implemented in Indonesia. Libraries and librarian instructors are still developing their roles, and this requires time and money, as well as school administration assistance.

The implementation approach in the LISA pattern above is to build sustainable programs and make schools aware that what they are doing is part of student learning activities that will really improve their learning outcomes.

Developing the function of the library in its parent institution requires a strategic approach that starts with building a library presence and building a network of people who can share information.


The use of information literacy in education in Indonesia is still a long and winding journey. The readiness of library staff, infrastructure, and resources (school librarians) are still two things that are not evenly distributed and comprehensive in the education system in Indonesia.

Another key component that should not be forgotten is the love of reading for students, which still needs to be nurtured and nurtured. Librarians are also important in responding to the growth of information technology which has an impact on the availability of information in many media.

This should also be an opportunity for the library to have a role that is more than just storing and providing information. The educational level of a school must be considered through the library and its librarians.

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